They are nine:

  • Consists of :
    1. Prediction. It motivates students to read, and it teaches them to make predictions based on the title of the text or the illustrations on it. I.e. The text is titled “Wings Are Used for Flying”. You write hypotheses about what you think the book is about, like eagles flying, how birds learn to fly, etc.
    2. Previous information: The teacher gives a preview on what the text is about without talking about the whole plot. For example, “We’re going to read about injustice or abuse…”


  1. QUESTIONING. Asking questions.

To understand what they read, the readers need to ask themselves questions about what they’re reading. For example, “What happened to the man?”, “Why was he sad?”…

  1. CONNECTIONS. Connect the reader’s previous knowledge with what’s in the text, context, etc. For example, “Has anyone read a similar book?”, “Do you know anyone who has been through similar experiences?”


4 VISUALIZING. It’s good to visualize the message in the text. Drawing the main message works well with children under 4th grade.


  1. VOCABULARY. You have to decide what vocabulary you want to teach to the students, and then design a learning strategy. The students can have a small notepad where they write down the words they learn. This notepad has to be checked often, and the teacher can even ask about the words every once in a while. During each reading, the vocabulary that the teacher wants the students to learn is written in bold letters, outlined, etc. Everyone collaborates to explain what it means, and then they add it to their new vocabulary notepad. Keep making many references about the acquired vocabulary.


6- MONITORING. Teach the students to ask themselves whether they understand what they read or not. They started reading with a hypothesis about the text, worked on the first strategy. They have to see if the hypothesis was correct or not, if it needs to be modified, etc. This strategy is really useful to improve focusing on a task.


7- SUMMARIZING. Summarize the main ideas. The students learn to extract main ideas from every paragraph.


8- INFERRING. They are taught how to identify inferences. Inferences are things said explicitly in the text.


9-EVALUATING. Critical evaluation of the process.